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Boeing 757

By Wikipedia

The Boeing 757 is a medium-range transcontinental commercial passenger airplane manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Production of the 757 ended in October 2004 after 1,050 had been built.

By the mid-Super70s, it was becoming clear that the airlines needed a replacement for their aging and expensive to maintain 727s. Boeing announced plans for a 7N7 (the N for narrow) and finally managed to secure the orders it needed to go ahead in 1979 from British Airways and Eastern Airlines. It took another two years for Boeing to find another buyer, however.

At the time, the aircraft looked remarkably like a 727. By the time the prototype was shown off, it looked a lot more like it's wide-body twin, the 767. The aircraft made its first flight on February 19, 1982 and was put into service on New Year's Day, 1983 by Eastern Airlines. British Airways began 757 service on February 9, 1983.

Introduction

The 757 was designed by Boeing to complement the 767 on less dense routes. Originally conceived as the Boeing 727-300, a stretched variant over the 727-200, the 757 was a newer design. Original designs of this plane featured a "T-tail" as the Boeing 727 but a conventional tail was ultimately adopted.

The 757 has transatlantic range, and was one of the earliest ETOPS-rated airliners. For better economics, the passenger capacity is increased by 50 over the 727.

The 757 uses many of the same components as the widebody 767, and the two planes have a common FAA type-rating, enabling flight crews to earn certification for both by training and testing only on one. The 757 maintains the same fuselage diameter as the previous 707, 727, and 737.

On October 16, 2003, Boeing announced production of the 757 would end some time in 2004. The 757 was discontinued just after sales had reached 1000. The 737-900 fulfills Boeing's marketing niche previously occupied by the 757, though it does not have the same range or take-off performance. Indeed, the 757 was preferred by airlines which needed to traverse long, thin routes, chiefly transcontinental and transatlantic routes. It was also desired by airlines flying from hot and high climates, such as Mexico City. The 757 has sometimes been called the Rocket Plane because of its ability to rapidly climb (it is able to carry its full Maximum Take Off Weight, and climb to 41,000 feet faster than any other airplane).

The 757's resale value has increased since the discontinuation of new production. In fact, a December 29, 2004 order from Continental Airlines for Boeing's new 787-8 and currently-produced 737-800 airliners included ten used 757-300s.

The 757 is the first Boeing airliner launched with non-US engines, Rolls-Royce RB211-535. Later, however, the Pratt & Whitney PW2000 was also offered as an option. Initially, a General Electric engine, the CF6-32, was also offered, but was cancelled due to lack of interest from airlines.

Boeing 757

N673DL, a Delta 757 seen at LAX.

Image courtesy of AirNikon. Find more of his photos at Airliners.net


The United States Air Force has fitted 757s for VIP transport duties: designated C-32, these aircraft are often used to transport the Vice President of the United States under the callsign "Air Force Two". The Royal New Zealand Air Force has two 757s that are used for transporting troops and VIPs. One 757 is also serving as a VIP and Presidential Transport aircraft in Argentina, and another one is also serving in the VIP and Presidential transport role in Mexico. A Boeing 757 is also used by the royal family of Saudi Arabia as a flying hospital.

Senator John Kerry used a chartered 757-200 from TransMeridian Airlines nicknamed Freedom Bird as his campaign jet during the 2004 U.S. presidential election.

At least two 757s are in use as private aircraft, by supermarket magnate Ronald Burkle and Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. Allen also purchased a 757 to serve as team aircraft for the Portland Trail Blazers.

In-Service

The majority of 757s are in domestic service with U.S. carriers, most notably American Airlines and Delta Air Lines. American operates the largest fleet of 757s and Delta comes in at a close second only by about 20 planes. United Airlines, Continental Airlines, US Airways, America West Airlines, and Northwest Airlines also operate the type. Some airlines, such as Icelandair, Continental Airlines, American Airlines and ATA Airlines use the aircraft for transoceanic flights. For many airlines, like Royal Brunei and Royal Nepal Airlines, the 757 provided them an economical intercontinental airliner allowing such airlines for the first time service to European cities. For many third world airlines, the 757 is also a perfect substitute to the aging Boeing 707s in their fleet.

The 757 is a popular aircraft for holiday/charter Airlines in the UK currently Thomas Cook Airlines, First Choice Airways, Monarch Airlines, Titan Airways, Excel Airways, Astraeus and Thomsonfly. The 757 can reach South Africa as well as places nearer to Britain such as Amsterdam and Paris.

After initially successful sales, the sales of the 757 went down dramatically from the middle of the 1990s onwards. The 757 was first bought mainly by airlines wishing to tap long and thin (as well as young) routes. However, as the routes matured, the 757 was replaced by widebody airliners with better economics.

On the short haul market, airlines consider the 757 too big as it is profitable only when it is at least three-quarters full. The short haul markets are better served by the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of airliners. Should the passenger load reach three-quarters, the A321 and the 737-900 are more economical. Although neither have the range of the 757, they fulfill the requirements of 90% of the routes served by the 757. The 757 became the victim of changing market condition rather than technical obsolescence. However, the 757 has found new life among many American airlines, its range enabling it to economically service "long-thin" trans-Atlantic markets such as Copenhagen, Glasgow and Shannon from East Coast hubs.

The 1,050th and last 757 destined for Shanghai Airlines rolled off the production line at Renton on October 28, 2004. The 757-200 is being replaced in the short term by the 737-900ER, and in the long term by the Y1. The 757-300 is being replaced by the 787-3 widebody.

General characteristics

  757-200 757-200F 757-300
First flight February 19, 1982   August 2, 1998
Crew 2 2 2
Passengers
(2 class)
200 (12 + 188)   243 (12 + 231)
Passengers
(1 class)
228   280
Cargo capacity 1,670 ft³ (43.3 m3) 8,430 ft³ (239 m3) 2,370 ft³ (67.1 m3)
Empty weight 128,730 lb (58,390 kg)   141,330 lb (64,110 kg )
Max. takeoff weight 255,000 lb (115,680 kg) 272,500 lb (123,600 kg)
Fuel capacity 11,489 US gal (43,490 l) 11,276 US gal (42,680 l) 11,466 US gal (43,400 l)
Operating range 3,928 nautical miles (7,275 km) 3,150 nautical miles (5,834 km) 3,467 nautical miles (6,421 km)
Cruising speed 540 mph (868 km/h) 530 knots (982 km/h)
Ceiling 41,000 ft (12,500 m)
Length 155 ft 3 in (47.32 m) 178 ft 7 in (54.47 m)
Wingspan 124 ft 10 in (38.05 m)
Tail height 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m)
Powerplants Two Rolls-Royce RB211, Pratt & Whitney PW2037, Pratt & Whitney PW2040,
or Pratt & Whitney PW2043 high-bypass ratio turbofan engines,
rated at 36,600 lbf (163 kN) to 43,500 lbf (193 kN) thrust each

 

Boeing 757 at a Glance
Engines2 Pratt & Whitney PW2037 turbofans
Cruising Speed570
Passengers239 (178 standard)
Range4603 miles
Span124 ft 10in
Length155ft 3in
Height44ft 6in
Weight250,100
Built1034 (through Sept '03)
Final Production2004
NOTE: Refers to first model; revisions usually hold more passengers and are more efficient.

 

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FLYING FACTS

Image courtesy of Boeing

Model: 757

Manufacturer: Boeing

Country: U.S.

First Flight: February 18, 1982

First Passenger Flight: January 1, 1983

Launch CustomerEastern


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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from this Wikipedia article, which is probably more up to date than ours (retrieved August 12, 2005).

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